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Even though the foot and ankle are perfect locations to exploit the added benefits of iontophoresis therapy as a result of the superficial nature on the pathology, it has demonstrated several optimistic clinical outcomes with treating Achilles tendinitis, rheumatoid arthritic knees, carpal tunnel syndrome, infrapatellar tendinitis, plantar fasciitis, lateral epicondylitis, and temporomandibular joint dysfunction when employing dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DEX-P) (Curney & Wascher, 2008). As outlined by Anderson (2003) and colleagues DEX-P through iontophoresis delivery can penetrate as much as 17 mm and theoretically 8 to 10 mm at pharmacologic concentrations, so most structures from the foot and ankle is often reached in this way. They also provided evidence which suggested that comparable iontophoretic doses delivered at low currents more than numerous hours are more productive than these delivered by higher currents over 10 to 30 minutes inside the creation of a localized physiologic effect for DEX-P, primarily based around the magnitude and duration of local cutaneous vasoconstriction. In my personal knowledge, treating the above conditions using DEX-P has led me to discover what a potent modality iontophoresis is. I have already been making use of it to reduce patients?pain and inflammation, improving scar flexibility, control symptoms of Morton neuroma, decrease calcifications in tendons, bursa, and muscles.


 Iontophoresis may be the introduction of ion compounds in to the skin by means of direct current predominantly (alternating current might be applied as well, but with less effect as a result I will not discuss it). One particular electrode is generally positive (anode) along with the other is normally adverse (cathode). The ionic compound commonly consists of charged molecules, which are placed under 1 or both electrodes such that electrorepulsive forces drive the drug molecules away from the electrodes, in to the skin, although the pores on the skin and sweat glands within the skin in particular. Within this way, the rate of penetration of charged drugs via the relatively impermeable stratum corneum is greatly enhanced compared to passive diffusion. The typical setup is schematically depicted in Figure two (see attached) (Tesselaar & Sjoberg, 2011). I use the Empi Dupel Iontophoresis unit and 80 mA.min dosages at a frequency of 3 times per week for two hree weeks then two times per week for added two weeks, similar towards the regimen described by Costa & Dyson (2007). Just before every remedy, I clean skin on the localized most painful points with an isopropyl alcohol (70% by volume) swab, in accordance with electrode manufacturer recommendations. I contemplate contraindications for iontophoresis in patients with higher susceptibility to applied currents. It really is complicated at instances to determine. Ordinarily I verify the site with the administration frequently for the duration of with the initially remedy. Other folks are patients carrying electrically-sensitive implanted devices including cardiac pace makers or patients with damages skin.

 My concern constantly has been with all the reality that the injected forms of steroid medication are identified to result in soft tissue atrophy with the tendons, ligaments, or fat pads due to abandon volume of the drug around the systemic level. This could lead to tissue rupture (Halpern, Horowitz & Nagel, 1977). In delivering steroids by means of iontophoresis there is no detectable blood level of your drug. I normally educate patients and give them hand out on this therapy I am proposing as a number of them possess a healthy fear of steroids. Once a patient discovers how much relief they obtain from this modality, they start off to ask me to make use of it on the myriad of their aches and pains. I noticed that with slow delivery the results are noticeable in some cases within minutes or hours and last for 30 to 48 hours after the session. It takes as much as six to 12 sessions to entirely resolve the issue. Occasionally I skip the session and ask patient if they noticed the distinction as it truly is difficult at occasions to stop therapy for some patients who found salvation from pain with this therapy. One more consideration is the level of skin sensitivity among patients. Some can report poor tolerance and no skin irritation. However some can tolerate therapy nicely and blister. I ask if the burning sensation is more than the entire surface of your pad or it is over the pinpoint (a lot more most likely will possess a problem with blistering). In any case, I explain to my patient that if mild blistering occurs it are going to be resolved in a few hours. I use the Milk of Magnesia (magnesium hydroxide 400mg) over the irritated skin to restore the pH level after the treatment.

 I use iontophoresis with ultrasound, stretching, manual techniques, and nerve glide. Administering iontophoresis with DEX-P, followed up by two MHz, 1.0 W/cm2, 50% pulsed ultrasound for 15-20 min more than the inflamed nerve root which is compressed by herniated disc, causes pain to decrease. This makes it possible for me to initiate a stabilization exercise regimen with the patient sooner. Within the suggested reading for this week, I came across an post by Costa & Dyson (2007), who presented a case of administering ultrasound more than the heel of a 15-year-old female soccer player. The growing plates of teenagers of this age may not be closed as of however. 1 consideration of mine is application of ultrasound within the area on the epiphyseal plate (please refer to fig.1) as it pertains to growing young children. The ultrasound really should be administered at a low intensity of

 DEX-P would be the drugs of choice when I deal with acute inflammation and pain. (I commonly steer clear of working with Lidocaine 4% for pain as I noticed that patients complain of your rebound effect of this medication). I prefer utilizing, acetic acid when a patient presents with calcific tenosynovitis and chronic pain. Other drugs worth considering are Ketoprofen 10%, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Gabapentin 6% is used to treat neuropathy. Potassium Iodide 10% is useful for softening scars and tendon adhesions. Acetic Acid 4% is commonly utilized for calcifications (heel spurs, calcific tendonitis). Table 1 (see attached) summarizes the common drugs made use of in a physical therapy setting (Aiken Compounding Pharmacy, n.d.). I generate the letter of medical necessity for the patient referring physician together with the request in the drug I strategy to work with for the diagnosed condition. The Drug Info Handbook states that contraindication for use of DEX-P is hypersensitivity to drug, systemic fungal infection, and cerebral malaria. The medication is introduced locally with avoidance on the systemic distribution through the blood stream which makes side-effects to become abolished. The synthetic glucocorticoid DEX-P just isn't present within the physique at any level but acts as one. It blocks prostaglandin biosynthesis via inhibition of phosphate enzyme activity and suppresses fibroblast deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), protein synthesis, and synthesis of collagen. It's said that chronic excess (six.25 mg/kg of cortisone acetate, for example, for 30 days) can impair wound healing by inhibition of epithelization and wound contracture (Gurney & Wascher, 2008). The arachidonic acid then cannot be released from the cell membrane phospholipids (NSADs, in contrast, prevents prostaglandin production via inhibition of your cyclooxygenase enzymes). DEX-P ionizes into a negatively charged compound and for that reason, when utilised for iontophoresis, is placed under the cathode. Based on Anderson (2003) and his colleagues, DEX-P is uncharged and has a poor solubility in aqueous solutions, the water-soluble DEX-P is generally utilised in iontophoretic applications. I found it's tough for patients to find the suitable form of DEX-P. The injectable form is just not acceptable and thus DEX-P desires to be compounded within the pharmacy that is familiar with preparation on the DEX-P for use in iontophoresis. In Vitro study by Sylvestre (2008) and colleagues pointed out that ot all commercially obtainable Dex-Phos solutions are equivalent for iontophoresis. The excellent donor solution contains no background electrolyte to compete with the drug to carry a charge across the skin?(p.1183). Some patients in my practice utilised to bring the prescribed by MD injectable form of DEX-P for remedy. I contacted a few pharmacies and found out that most of them had been not aware of the differences between topical and injectable form with the drug. Finally, I was in a position to get facts from the local compounding pharmacy owner, Peter Fallon (2000, personal conversation), who told me that the injectable form contains competitive ions in the preservatives they place in to the drug. It is sterilized which makes the drug a lot more expensive for the user, and some people can have an allergic reaction to the preservative, while the topical DEX-P solution they make has just aqueous ionic DEX-P solution.

 Despite the fact that numerous studies suggest the use with the iotophoretic delivery of drugs for instance DEX-P, you will find clinical trials that have indicated a lack of clinical efficacy of iontophoresis. The truth that the drug dose inside the tissue during iontophoresis is unknown, no matter the delivery regime, is perhaps the major limitation of your method in comparison with in-vitro methodology. A better understanding from the local drug kinetics and response dynamics in the course of iontophoresis of vasoactive drugs is needed to enable far more accurate dose response analysis (Tesselaar & Sjoberg, 2011). In addition, several studies had been not randomized and some had no control group. In accordance with Curney and Wascher (2008) the iontophoretic transmission of DEX-P by way of living human skin with absorption of DEX into dense connective tissue is unknown.

 This may possibly be the reason why iontophoresis isn't approved by insurances carriers for coverage. The method of iontophoresis was initial described by Pivati in 1747; in 1900 Leduc introduced the term iontotherapy and formulated the laws for this process (Gazelius, n.d.). In line with Gurney and Wascher (2008) iontophoresis has been used clinically for 62 years! A single may think that over this period of time and rise of a technological globe, we uncover methods to overcome these limitations. Personally, I believe that iontophoresis is an underestimated modality, and remains expensive due to getting an uncovered service. The therapy expense is approximately $35 (expense of electrodes and drug per one site of remedy), not to include the labor time and effort, however it makes the encounter of rehabilitation less painful for my patients. When they finish the therapy and continue with their lives feeling greater than when they started therapy, it improves compliance. Lastly, what I gain from applying iontophoresis in my clinic is that patients come back asking for much more of hat magic? I don know about you, but I love it when my patients refer to my hands as magic.

 Given final week discussion on drug reviews and we have been talking about not even recommending the use of OTC medications, how comfy are you administering this remedy? One of my patient utilised GlucoWatch to monitor the plasma glucose concentration. It is actually primarily based around the reversed iontophoresis techniques (Nair, Goel, Prakash & Kumar, 2012, Figure 3). Has anyone utilized reversed iontophoresis system for non-invasive therapeutic drug monitoring?

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Comment by Hui Wylly on November 30, 2016 at 5:09am

Can you please provide more detail about this lontophoresis Application.


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